Safe and unsafe operations for high volume PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is an object-relational database management system, which I often to use for many products. Some of this products should have high availability and working without any downtime. This means, I should run a database schema migrations while the app is up and serving requests. I have to be very careful about what database operations I run. If I run a bad command, it can lock out updates to a table for a long time. For example, if I create a new index on table, I cannot create new record in this table while that index is building. Anyone who tries to make a record in this table will block, and possibly time out, causing a partial outage. In general, I am ok with database operations taking a long time. However, any operation that locks a table for updates for more than a few seconds means downtime for me.

I decided to make a list of an operations, which can be done safe (without downtime) and usafe.

Add a new column (safe)

This operation will not block table and can be done safety. But exists some cases, which can lock your table.

Add a column with a default (unsafe if PostgreSQL < 11)

Adding a column with a default requires updating each row of the table (to store the new column value). For big table this will create long running operation that locks it. So if you intend to fill the column with mostly non default values, it’s best to add the column with no default, insert the correct values using UPDATE (correct way is to do batched updates, for example, update 1000 rows at a time, because big update will create table-wide lock), and then add any desired default.

UPDATE: With PostgreSQL 11 it is now possible to have DDL statements like this:

ALTER TABLE users ADD COLUMN foo_factor integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 42;

execute in constant time. Rows are not touched when this executed, and are instead updated “lazily”.

Add a column that is non-nullable (unsafe if PostgreSQL < 11)

This will have the same problem, as “Add a column with a default”. To make this operation without locking, you can create a new table with the addition of the non-nullable column, write to both tables, backfill, and then switch to the new table. This workaround is incredibly onerous and need two times more space than is a table takes.

UPDATE: With PostgreSQL 11 it is now possible to have DDL statements like this:

ALTER TABLE users ADD COLUMN foo_factor integer NOT NULL DEFAULT 42;

execute in constant time. Rows are not touched when this executed, and are instead updated “lazily”.

Drop a column (safe)

Dropping a column is very quick, but PostgreSQL won’t reclaim the disk space until you run a “VACUUM FULL”.

Change the type of a column (unsafe)

It is not strictly unsafe for all changes. Changing the length of a varchar, for example, does not lock a table. But if column type change requires a rewrite or not depends on the datatype, in this case this operation requires updating each row of the table. As workaround, you can add a new column with needed type, change the code to write to both columns, and backfill the new column.

Add a default value to an existing column (safe)

This operation will not block table and can be done safety.

Add an index (unsafe)

Normally PostgreSQL locks the table to be indexed against writes and performs the entire index build with a single scan of the table. Other transactions can still read the table, but if they try to insert, update, or delete rows in the table they will block until the index build is finished.

PostgreSQL supports building indexes without locking out writes. This method is invoked by specifying the CONCURRENTLY option of CREATE INDEX. When this option is used, PostgreSQL must perform two scans of the table, and in addition it must wait for all existing transactions that could potentially modify or use the index to terminate. Thus this method requires more total work than a standard index build and takes significantly longer to complete. However, since it allows normal operations to continue while the index is built, this method is useful for adding new indexes in a production environment. Of course, the extra CPU and I/O load imposed by the index creation might slow other operations.

If a problem arises while scanning the table, such as a uniqueness violation in a unique index, the CREATE INDEX command will fail but leave behind an “invalid” index. This index will be ignored for querying purposes because it might be incomplete; however it will still consume update overhead. The psql \d command will report such an index as INVALID:

postgres=# \d tab
       Table ""
 Column |  Type   | Modifiers
 col    | integer |
    "idx" btree (col) INVALID

The recommended recovery method in such cases is to drop the index and try again to perform CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY.

Another difference is that a regular CREATE INDEX command can be performed within a transaction block, but CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY cannot.

Add a column with a unique constraint (unsafe)

This operation will lock table. As workaround, you can add column, add unique index concurrently, and then add the constraint onto the table:

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX CONCURRENTLY token_is_unique ON large_table(token);
ALTER TABLE large_table ADD CONSTRAINT token UNIQUE USING INDEX token_is_unique;

Drop a constraint (safe)

This operation will not block table and can be done safety.

VACUUM FULL (unsafe)

VACUUM reclaims storage occupied by dead tuples. In normal PostgreSQL operation, tuples that are deleted or obsoleted by an update are not physically removed from their table; they remain present until a VACUUM is done. VACUUM FULL rewrites the entire contents of the table into a new disk file with no extra space, allowing unused space to be returned to the operating system. This form is much slower and requires an exclusive lock on each table while it is being processed.

To solve this problem you can use Pg_repack PostgreSQL extension. To perform a full-table repack, pg_repack will:

  1. create a log table to record changes made to the original table;
  2. add a trigger onto the original table, logging INSERTs, UPDATEs and DELETEs into our log table;
  3. create a new table containing all the rows in the old table;
  4. build indexes on this new table;
  5. apply all changes which have accrued in the log table to the new table;
  6. swap the tables, including indexes and toast tables, using the system catalogs;
  7. drop the original table;

Pg_repack will only hold an ACCESS EXCLUSIVE lock for a short period during initial setup (steps 1 and 2 above) and during the final swap-and-drop phase (steps 6 and 7). For the rest of its time, pg_repack only needs to hold an ACCESS SHARE lock on the original table, meaning INSERTs, UPDATEs, and DELETEs may proceed as usual.

Performing a full-table repack requires free disk space about twice as large as the target table(s) and its indexes.


Normally all PostgreSQL data resides in single directory. But you might have some additional SSD disks, or quite the contrary~— some slow, but very large disks. And you’d want to put some of the data to another disk set. This is what tablespaces are.

Default tablespace is simply $PGDATA/base directory. But you can have many other, created with:


command. Afterwards you can move some tables/indexes to this new tablespace with:


This is locking operation. To solve this problem you can use pg_repack with --tablespace option.


As you can see, all unsafe operations can be solved by some workarounds. Just need to remember how this unsafe operations will behave in the PostgreSQL database and be very careful about what database operations you run on production database.

That’s all folks! Thank you for reading till the end.


September 20 2016